John Balmes, MD


Dr. Balmes received his MD degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 1976. After internal medicine training at Mount Sinai and pulmonary subspecialty, occupational medicine, and research training at Yale, he joined the faculty of USC in 1982. He joined the faculty at UCSF in 1986 and is currently Professor in the Divisions of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFG). His major academic activities include several collaborative epidemiological research projects, various advisory and editorial committees, Director of the UC Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program, Director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health (a consortium of programs at UC Berkeley, UC Davis, and UCSF). Since 2008 he has been the Physician Member of the California Air Resources Board.

Until 2015, Dr. Balmes was the Director of the UCSF Human Exposure Laboratory (HEL). The HEL was the first group to demonstrate a) histological evidence of ozone-induced airway injury and inflammation in human subjects, b) that asthmatic subjects have greater inflammatory responses to ozone than normal subjects, c) that ozone-induced inflammatory responses in normal subjects attenuate with short-term exposures on consecutive days in the lung, and d) that asthmatic subjects recruit macrophages to the airways with consecutive day exposures. The HEL also studied the relationship of acute airway inflammatory responses to acute cardiovascular responses after both ozone and secondhand tobacco smoke.

Dr. Balmes is also collaborating on several epidemiological projects that are run out of the UC Berkeley School of Public Health where he is a Professor of Environmental Health Sciences. One such project is called the Children’s Health and Air Pollution Study (CHAPS). The overall specific goal of CHAPS is to assess the impact of air pollution on the health of children living in Fresno, including adverse effects on immune and metabolic function that may increase the risk of asthma onset/exacerbation, obesity, glucose dysregulation, and hypertension. A second project involves study of the effects of biomass smoke exposure on chronic respiratory health of children and adults in rural Guatemala, Malawi, Nepal, and Rwanda. A third line of research involves the effects of arsenic in drinking water on lung health in both Bangladesh and Chile. Yet another project involves the effect of chronic exposure to pesticides among a birth cohort of Mexican-American children in Salinas.
06/1982 - Pulmonary Medicine Postdoctoral Fellowship, Yale University Medical Center
06/1979 - Internal Medicine Residency, Mount Sinai Medical Center
MD, 06/1976 - Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
BA, 06/1972 - Psychology, University of Illinois
  1. Cardiopulmonary Impact of Particulate Air Pollution in High-Risk Populations: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.
  2. Wildland firefighter exposure to smoke and COVID-19: A new risk on the fire line.
  3. The Changing Nature of Wildfires: Impacts on the Health of the Public.
  4. Short-term differences in cardiac function following controlled exposure to cookstove air pollution: The subclinical tests on volunteers exposed to smoke (STOVES) study.
  5. Differences in the Estimation of Wildfire-Associated Air Pollution by Satellite Mapping of Smoke Plumes and Ground-Level Monitoring.
  6. Guidance to Reduce the Cardiovascular Burden of Ambient Air Pollutants: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.
  7. Health effects of wildfire smoke in children and public health tools: a narrative review.
  8. The joint effect of ambient air pollution and agricultural pesticide exposures on lung function among children with asthma.
  9. Acute differences in blood lipids and inflammatory biomarkers following controlled exposures to cookstove air pollution in the STOVES study.
  10. The Need for a Tighter Particulate-Matter Air-Quality Standard.
  11. Long-term ozone exposure is positively associated with telomere length in critically ill patients.
  12. Does Ambient Ozone or Other Pollutants Modify Effects of Controlled Ozone Exposure on Pulmonary Function?
  13. Pneumonia and Exposure to Household Air Pollution in Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Rural Malawi: Findings From the Cooking and Pneumonia Study.
  14. Acute changes in lung function following controlled exposure to cookstove air pollution in the subclinical tests of volunteers exposed to smoke (STOVES) study.
  15. Reply to: Are Electronic Cigarette Users at Risk for Lipid-Mediated Lung Injury?
  16. Prospective cohort study of respiratory effects at ages 14 to 26 following early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water.
  17. Prenatal phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure and childhood allergic and respiratory outcomes: Evaluating exposure to chemical mixtures.
  18. Outdoor Air Pollution and New-Onset Airway Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report.
  19. Cumulative Lifetime Burden of Cardiovascular Disease From Early Exposure to Air Pollution.
  20. The hazards of wildfire smoke exposure for children.
  21. Where There's Smoke, Kids Will Cough and Wheeze.
  22. Non-communicable respiratory disease and air pollution exposure in Malawi: a prospective cohort study.
  23. Biomass Fuel Use and Cardiac Function in Nepali Women.
  24. Associations between historical residential redlining and current age-adjusted rates of emergency department visits due to asthma across eight cities in California: an ecological study.
  25. Geospatial-temporal analysis of the impact of ozone on asthma rescue inhaler use.
  26. Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction.
  27. Vaping-Induced Acute Lung Injury: An Epidemic That Could Have Been Prevented.
  28. Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality in 652 Cities. Reply.
  29. Residential urban tree canopy is associated with decreased mortality during tuberculosis treatment in California.
  30. Acute differences in pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and central pulse pressure following controlled exposures to cookstove air pollution in the Subclinical Tests of Volunteers Exposed to Smoke (SToVES) study.
  31. Long-term Exposure to Ozone and Cardiopulmonary Mortality: Epidemiology Strikes Again.
  32. Accelerated lung function decline in an aluminium manufacturing industry cohort exposed to PM2.5: an application of the parametric g-formula.
  33. Pneumoproteins are associated with pulmonary function in HIV-infected persons.
  34. Ozone effects on blood biomarkers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function, and thrombosis: The Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES).
  35. Incident command post exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter during a wildfire.
  36. Lung health and exposure to air pollution in Malawian children (CAPS): a cross-sectional study.
  37. Do We Really Need Another Time-Series Study of the PM2.5-Mortality Association?
  38. Acute Effects on Blood Pressure Following Controlled Exposure to Cookstove Air Pollution in the STOVES Study.
  39. Ambient Air Pollution, Asthma Drug Response and Telomere Length in African American Youth.
  40. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, DNA methylation, and asthma in Latino children.
  41. Household air pollution from domestic combustion of solid fuels and health.
  42. The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases. An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement.
  43. Associations between Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter and Respiratory Illness Found to Vary between Children and Adults: Implications for U.S. Air Quality Policy.
  44. Impact of Long-Term Exposures to Ambient PM2.5 and Ozone on ARDS Risk for Older Adults in the United States.
  45. Wildland firefighter smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality.
  46. Greening of the Heart and Mind.
  47. When the Fetus is Exposed to Smoke, the Developing Lung is Burned.
  48. Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease and Air Pollution Exposure in Malawi (CAPS): A Cross-Sectional Study.
  49. Healthy Air, Healthy Brains: Advancing Air Pollution Policy to Protect Children's Health.
  50. Seeing the Wood for the Trees - Household Air Pollution and Lung Disease.
  51. Monitoring and Modeling of Household Air Quality Related to Use of Different Cookfuels in Paraguay.
  52. Wildfires Disaster Guidance: Tips for Staying Healthy during Wildfires.
  53. Low to Moderate Air Pollutant Exposure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Severe Trauma.
  54. Prenatal exposure to air pollution, maternal diabetes and preterm birth.
  55. Night and rotational work exposure within the last 12 months and risk of incident hypertension.
  56. Prenatal high molecular weight phthalates and bisphenol A, and childhood respiratory and allergic outcomes.
  57. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Biomass Cookstoves and Levels of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Honduran Women.
  58. Air Pollution and Non-Communicable Diseases: A Review by the Forum of International Respiratory Societies' Environmental Committee, Part 1: The damaging effects of air pollution.
  59. Air Pollution and Non-Communicable Diseases: A review by the Forum of International Respiratory Societies' Environmental Committee. Part 2: Air pollution and organ systems.
  60. Associations between prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of personal care product chemical biomarkers and childhood respiratory and allergic outcomes in the CHAMACOS study.
  61. The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Carboxyhemoglobin Levels in Children under 5 Years Old.
  62. Response.
  63. Reply: Response to Cookstove Trials and Tribulations: What Is Needed to Decrease the Burden of Household Air Pollution?
  64. Cardiovascular function and ozone exposure: The Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES).
  65. Comparison of motorcycle taxi driver's respiratory health using an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in ambient air: a pilot survey in Benin.
  66. Respiratory Responses to Ozone Exposure: The Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES).
  67. Household Air Pollution and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. "A Riddle, Wrapped in a Mystery, Inside an Enigma".
  68. Air Pollution Exposure Is Associated With Lower Lung Function, but Not Changes in Lung Function, in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
  69. Where There's Wildfire, There's Smoke.
  70. Exposure to NO2, CO, and PM2.5 is linked to regional DNA methylation differences in asthma.
  71. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.
  72. EPA's New Ozone Air Quality Standard: Why Should We Care?
  73. Environmental Effects of Intensive Livestock Farming.
  74. In control of ambient and household air pollution - how low should we go?
  75. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and All-Cause Mortality during Tuberculosis Treatment in California.
  76. Elemental Sulfur Use and Associations with Pediatric Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms in an Agricultural Community (California, USA).
  77. Effects of clinical and environmental factors on bronchoalveolar antibody responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii: A prospective cohort study of HIV+ patients.
  78. Home monitoring improves endpoint efficiency in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
  79. The Effects of Bit Wear on Respirable Silica Dust, Noise and Productivity: A Hammer Drill Bench Study.
  80. We Need to "Think Different" about Particulate Matter.
  81. Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed and Wildland Fires.
  82. AJRCCM: 100-Year Anniversary. Clearing the Air: Indoors, Outdoors, and At Work.
  83. An American Thoracic Society/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report: Addressing Respiratory Health Equality in the United States.
  84. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Telomere Length in Children and Adolescents Living in Fresno, CA: A Pilot Study.
  85. Exhaled carbon monoxide: a non-invasive biomarker of short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution.
  86. Environment, Global Climate Change, and Cardiopulmonary Health.
  87. Air pollution, neighborhood acculturation factors, and neural tube defects among Hispanic women in California.
  88. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.
  89. A cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under 5 years old in rural Malawi (the Cooking and Pneumonia Study): a cluster randomised controlled trial.
  90. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: 50 Years of Advancing Science and Improving Lung Health.
  91. Outdoor Air Pollution and Your Health.
  92. Air-Quality Impacts and Intake Fraction of PM2.5 during the 2013 Rim Megafire.
  93. High risks of lung disease associated with early-life and moderate lifetime arsenic exposure in northern Chile.
  94. Survey of International Members of the American Thoracic Society on Climate Change and Health.
  95. The last Summer Olympics? Climate change, health, and work outdoors.
  96. Differential respiratory health effects from the 2008 northern California wildfires: A spatiotemporal approach.
  97. Early-life ozone exposure associated with asthma without sensitization in Latino children.
  98. Air Pollution and Lung Function in Minority Youth with Asthma in the GALA II (Genes-Environments and Admixture in Latino Americans) and SAGE II (Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments) Studies.
  99. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Increases the Risk of Developing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
  100. Critical Review of Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke Exposure.
  101. Lung function in woodsmoke-exposed Guatemalan children following a chimney stove intervention.
  102. Erratum: "Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Wood Combustion and Association with Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Nonsmoking Women: Results from the RESPIRE Trial, Guatemala".
  103. Decreased lung function in 7-year-old children with early-life organophosphate exposure.
  104. Exposure to Endotoxin in Household Dust. To Wheeze or Not to Wheeze.
  105. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure: Results From the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects and Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood
  106. Inflammatory and repair pathways induced in human bronchoalveolar lavage cells with ozone inhalation.
  107. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.
  108. Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects.
  109. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease?
  110. Investigation of hydrogen sulfide exposure and lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a geothermal area of New Zealand.
  111. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California wildfires using machine learning.
  112. American Thoracic Society member survey on climate change and health.
  113. Cardiovascular risk and events and country income stratum.
  114. Ozone inhalation leads to a dose-dependent increase of cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes.
  115. An official American Thoracic Society statement: diagnosis and management of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease.
  116. Exposure to household air pollution from wood combustion and association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in nonsmoking women: results from the RESPIRE trial, Guatemala.
  117. Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pediatric respiratory symptoms in the CHAMACOS cohort.
  118. Elevated lung cancer in younger adults and low concentrations of arsenic in water.
  119. Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns.
  120. Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the United States for use in Environmental Public Health Tracking.
  121. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.
  122. Reply: the largest problem with climate change policy is not a future event.
  123. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children.
  124. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12-19 years of age: NHANES (1999-2008).
  125. Outdoor air pollution and asthma.
  126. Hypothetical interventions to limit metalworking fluid exposures and their effects on COPD mortality: G-estimation within a public health framework.
  127. Effects of woodsmoke exposure on airway inflammation in rural Guatemalan women.
  128. Climate change. A global threat to cardiopulmonary health.
  129. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.
  130. Annual average ambient particulate matter exposure estimates, measured home particulate matter, and hair nicotine are associated with respiratory outcomes in adults with asthma.
  131. Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution.
  132. Ambient air pollution associated with suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.
  133. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis associated with air pollution exposure.
  134. Social isolation: a predictor of mortality comparable to traditional clinical risk factors.
  135. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.
  136. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh.
  137. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.
  138. Early-life air pollution and asthma risk in minority children. The GALA II and SAGE II studies.
  139. Asbestos and lung cancer: what we know.
  140. Thirdhand cigarette smoke in an experimental chamber: evidence of surface deposition of nicotine, nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and de novo formation of NNK.
  141. Associations of ambient hydrogen sulfide exposure with self-reported asthma and asthma symptoms.
  142. Household air pollution: a call for studies into biomarkers of exposure and predictors of respiratory disease.
  143. Higher environmental relative moldiness index values measured in homes of adults with asthma, rhinitis, or both conditions.
  144. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.
  145. Drinking water arsenic in northern chile: high cancer risks 40 years after exposure cessation.
  146. Thirty minute-exposure to aged cigarette smoke increases nasal congestion in nonsmokers.
  147. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
  148. Mediators of the socioeconomic gradient in outcomes of adult asthma and rhinitis.
  149. Particulate matter and the environmental protection agency: setting the right standard.
  150. Household air pollution is a major avoidable risk factor for cardiorespiratory disease.
  152. Can we predict who will develop chronic sequelae of acute inhalational injury?
  153. Utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) to demonstrate increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke.
  154. The exposure-dependent effects of aged secondhand smoke on endothelial function.
  155. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and wheeze in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, CA.
  156. Exposure to secondhand smoke outside of a bar and a restaurant and tobacco exposure biomarkers in nonsmokers.
  157. Effects of exercise on systemic inflammatory, coagulatory, and cardiac autonomic parameters in an inhalational exposure study.
  158. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: Climate change and human health.
  159. Pilot evaluation of the nasal nitric oxide response to humming as an index of osteomeatal patency.
  160. Evaluation of a heat vulnerability index on abnormally hot days: an environmental public health tracking study.
  161. Clearing the air.
  162. The association between chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and ischemic heart disease.
  163. Effect of reduction in household air pollution on childhood pneumonia in Guatemala (RESPIRE): a randomised controlled trial.
  164. Neurodevelopmental performance among school age children in rural Guatemala is associated with prenatal and postnatal exposure to carbon monoxide, a marker for exposure to woodsmoke.
  165. The role of physical inactivity in increasing disability among older adults with obstructive airway disease.
  166. Evaluating quality of life in patients with asthma and rhinitis: English adaptation of the rhinasthma questionnaire.
  167. How does diesel exhaust impact asthma?
  168. Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic in drinking water: preliminary findings.
  169. Ambient air pollution impairs regulatory T-cell function in asthma.
  170. An official American Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  171. Short-term effects of air pollution on wheeze in asthmatic children in Fresno, California.
  172. Low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease among workers at a nuclear weapons research and development facility.
  173. An integrated model of environmental factors in adult asthma lung function and disease severity: a cross-sectional study.
  174. When smoke gets in your lungs.
  175. A second chance. Setting a protective ozone standard.
  176. Biomass smoke exposures: health outcomes measures and study design.
  177. Outdoor air pollution and uncontrolled asthma in the San Joaquin Valley, California.
  178. An official American thoracic society statement: position statement on ATS activities for the promotion of respiratory and sleep/wake health and the care of the critically ill in the United States.
  179. Can traffic-related air pollution cause asthma?
  180. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.
  181. Further exploration of the links between occupational exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  182. American College of Chest Physicians consensus statement on the respiratory health effects of asbestos. Results of a Delphi study.
  183. Altered pulmonary function in children with asthma associated with highway traffic near residence.
  184. Progression from beryllium exposure to chronic beryllium disease: an analytic model.
  185. Exposure to traffic: lung function and health status in adults with asthma.
  186. Early-lifetime exposure to air pollution and allergic sensitization in children with asthma.
  187. Controlled exposure to combined particles and ozone decreases heart rate variability.
  188. Diagnosis and management of work-related asthma: American College Of Chest Physicians Consensus Statement.
  189. Environmental public health tracking of childhood asthma using California health interview survey, traffic, and outdoor air pollution data.
  190. Air pollution and pulmonary function in asthmatic children: effects of prenatal and lifetime exposures.
  191. Brief secondhand smoke exposure depresses endothelial progenitor cells activity and endothelial function: sustained vascular injury and blunted nitric oxide production.
  192. Is there an association between lifetime cumulative exposure and acute pulmonary responses to ozone?
  193. Socioeconomic gradients in tiotropium use among adults with COPD.
  194. Effects of chronic and acute ozone exposure on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in healthy young adults.
  195. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: does occupation matter?
  196. Ozone, a malady for all ages.
  197. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo'lin? Mapping children's respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala.
  198. Secondhand smoke exposure, pulmonary function, and cardiovascular mortality.
  199. The World Trade Center collapse: a continuing tragedy for lung health?
  200. Integrating research, surveillance, and practice in environmental public health tracking.
  201. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes.
  202. Case report: a case of wood-smoke-related pulmonary disease.
  203. Genotype-activity relationship for Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase in humans.
  204. Cytogenetic damage in buccal epithelia and peripheral lymphocytes of young healthy individuals exposed to ozone.
  205. Residential proximity to naturally occurring asbestos: health risk or ecologic fallacy?
  206. Work life of persons with asthma, rhinitis, and COPD: a study using a national, population-based sample.
  207. Effects of multiday exposure to ozone on airway inflammation as determined using sputum induction.
  208. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on allergic airway responses in subjects with asthma.
  209. Bronchiectasis in persons with skin lesions resulting from arsenic in drinking water.
  210. Chronic exposure to ambient ozone and lung function in young adults.
  211. Functioning and psychological status among individuals with COPD.
  212. Evidence for excess colorectal cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed men in the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial.
  213. Decrements in lung function related to arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.
  214. Exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes: assessment by a single survey item compared to a detailed exposure battery and a job exposure matrix.
  215. Respiratory health effects related to occupational spray painting and welding.
  216. Sputum induction and bronchoscopy for assessment of ozone-induced airway inflammation in asthma.
  217. Repeated exposure to ozone increases alveolar macrophage recruitment into asthmatic airways.
  218. Development and validation of a survey-based COPD severity score.
  219. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  220. Impact of the home indoor environment on adult asthma and rhinitis.
  221. Can lessons from public health disease surveillance be applied to environmental public health tracking?
  222. Occupational contribution to the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  223. Predictors of lung cancer among asbestos-exposed men in the {beta}-carotene and retinol efficacy trial.
  224. Chlorine inhalation produces nasal airflow limitation in allergic rhinitic subjects without evidence of neuropeptide release.
  225. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements.
  226. Effect of ozone exposure on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects.
  227. Influence of age, gender, and allergy status on nasal reactivity to inhaled chlorine.
  228. Differences in nasal irritant sensitivity by age, gender, and allergic rhinitis status.
  229. Evaluating the use of a portable spirometer in a study of pediatric asthma.
  230. American Thoracic Society Statement: Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease.
  231. Occupational airways diseases from chronic low-level exposures to irritants.
  232. Hard metal interstitial lung disease: high-resolution computed tomography appearance.
  233. Cholinergic blockade does not alter the nasal congestive response to irritant provocation.
  234. Aircraft cabin air recirculation and symptoms of the common cold.
  235. Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action.